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现在完成时课件免费

极限学习网 2021-03-31 课件

现在完成时课件免费

  现在完成时课件免费

  教学过程

  一、复习预习

  1.引入:I have read this book twice. Read 动作发生在过去。

  2.现在完成时的动作发生在过去,对现在造成的影响。

  3.现在完成时结构中have/has的作用:通过do/dose/be等联想法推导出have/has的语法能。

  二、知识讲解

  本节课主要知识点解析,中高考考点、易错点分析

  考点/易错点1

  基本结构:助动词have/has+过去分词(done)

  否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他.

  一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他.

  简略答语: Yes, 主语 + have/has.(肯定) No, 主语 + haven't/hasn't.(否定) 用法

  (1)现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果

  I have spent all of my money (so far).(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.)

  Guo zijun has (just/already) come. (含义是:郭子君现在在这儿)

  My father has gone to work.(含义是:我爸爸现在不在这儿)

  (2)现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的动作(用行为动词表示)或状态(be动词表示),常与for(+时间段)或since(+时间点或过去时的句子)连用.

  ①for+时段

  ②since+过去一个时间点(译为:自从以来)

  ③since+时段+ago

  ④since+从句(过去时)

  ⑤It is+时段+since+从句(过去时) Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998.

  考点/易错点2

  现在完成时和一般过去式的区别:

  一般过去时和现在完成时所表示的动作都发生在过去,那么这两种时态有什么区别呢? ①一般过去时常与具体的表示过去的时间状语如yesterday, last year, just now等连用;强调动作在过去发生,与现在无关。

  ②现在完成时与自已的特征词already ,yet ,just ,ever ,never,before等连用,强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响或过去开始发生一直持续到现在的动作。

  例: He saw the film last night. (过去时,表示他昨晚看过那部电影了,现在不知还要不要再看一次)

  He has (ever) seen the film before.(现在完成时,表示他已看过那部电影,现在不想再看了)

  ③现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的。如:live, work,study等。而一般现在时对动词是否延续无任何要求。

  时间状语的区别:

  除了我们讲过的already, yet, still,just, ever, never, since短语和 for短语外,还有许多时间状语常用于现在完成时,我们要留心将它们和一般过去时的时间状语区分开来:

  1. lately, recently是完成时的`时间状语;just now 有a moment ago 之意,是过去时的时间状语。如:

  Have you heard from your family lately/recently? Did you see Joan just now?

  2. in the past few years 意思是“过去几年来”,常用于完成时中;in the past意思是“在过去”,常用于过去时中。 如:

  Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past few years.

  Where did you work in the past?

  3. ever since then与from then on / after that 都有“打那以后”之意,但前者常用于完成时,而后两者常用于过去时。如:

  She's lived here ever since then. I didn't hear of Jim from then on/after that.

  4. before 通常用于完成时;...ago通常用于过去时。如:

  I have never been to Japan before. She went to Japan two years ago.

  5. so far“到目前为止”, these days“这些天来”也是现在完成时常见的时间状语。如: So far, no man has travelled farther than the moon.

  What have you done these days?

  考点/易错点3:

  现在完成时动词持续性用法

  持续性用法(肯定句,疑问句中谓语动词必须是延续性动词):表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。此时常与“for +一段时间或“since+过去的点时间或从句(从句用一般过去时)以及so far(到目前为止)等时间状语连用。

  for + 段时间 / since +点时间

  例:

  1)I've lived here since 1990.自从1990年以来我就住在这里。

  = I've lived here since 21 years ago.

  = I've lived here for 21 years.

  = It is 21 years since I began to live here.

  注意:①在这类句子的肯定句和疑问句中谓语动词必须用延续性动词。短暂性动词由于动作不能持续,故不能与for(达到;累计)或since(自从。。。到现在)引出的时间状语连用。 ②对for和since引导的时间状语提问要用How long

  1) 他入团两年了。

  误:He has joined the League for two years.

  正:He has been a League member for two years.

  区别:have been in, have been to 与have gone to 的用法

  1. have(has) been in 意为“已经在某地呆了多长时间”,常与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

  Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗先生来上海已经有三天了。 They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。

  2. have(has) been to意为“曾经去过某地”,表示现在已经不在那里了。可与just, ever, never等连用。 如:

  I've just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。

  Have you ever been to Hangzhou? 你曾经去过杭州吗?

  Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。

  3. have(has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次。如:

  I've been to Beijing three times. 我去过北京三次。

  They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。

  4. have(has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”,表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。 总之,说话时该人不在现场,一般不用第一、第二人称代词作句子的主语。如: ---Where is Tom? ---He has gone to the bookshop. 他到书店去了。

  三、例题精析

  【试题】3~5道

  【例题1】

  【【题干】Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him .

  A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know

  【答案】B

  【解析】现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才行。正确答案是B。

  【例题2】

  【题干】Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .

  A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

  【答案】B

  【解析】现在完成时还与once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times(几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故应选B。

  【例题3】

  【题干】—These farmers have been to the United States .

  —Really ? When _____ there ?

  A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone

  【答案】B

  【解析】现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday , last week , a moment ago等)连用。故正确答案为B。

  四、课堂运用

  【基础】 1. Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him . A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know

  2. He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?

  A. already B.never C.ever D. Still

  3. Have you met Mr Li ______?

  A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago

  答案及解析:

  1、现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。

  2、现在完成时常与already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从来,也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故2应选B。

  3、C

  【巩固

  1. The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year

  A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written

  2. -Our country ______ a lot so far . -Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good

  C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better

  3. Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .

  A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

  答案及解析:

  1、现在完成时常与recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/"last + 一段时间"等时间状语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间,句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故2应选D。

  2、C

  3、现在完成时时常与"for +时间段或since +过去时间点"连用(含从句,从句过去时)。故3应选C。

  【拔高】 1. We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .

  A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

  2. Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .

  A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

  3. -These farmers have been to the United States .

  -Really ? When _____ there ?

  A. will they go B. did they go

  C. do they go D. have they gone

  答案及解析:

  1、C

  2、现在完成时还与once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times(几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故2应选B。

  3、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday , last week ,

  a moment ago等)连用。故3的正确答案为B。)

  课程小结

  1. 现在完成时的定义

  2. 现在完成时里表示一段时间的延续性动词以及连续性动词的用法

  3. 现在完成时和一般过去时对比和总结

  课后作业

  【基础】

  1. -______ you ___ your homework yet ?

  -Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .

  A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished

  C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish

  2. His father ______ the Party since 1978 .

  A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

  3. -Do you know him well ?

  Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

  A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

  答案及解析:

  1、B

  2、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与for和since引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。故11的正确答案依次为:D。

  3.B

  【巩固】

  1. -How long have you ____ here ?

  -About two months .

  A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

  2. Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .

  A. has begun B. had begun C. has been onD. Began

  3. It _____ ten years since he left the army .

  A. is B. has C. will D. Was

  答案及解析:

  1、A 2、C 3、A。

  【拔高】

  1. Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library .

  A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been

  2. My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

  A. have been in B. have been to

  C. have gone to D. have been

  3. The students have cleaned the classroom, __________?

  A. so they B. don't they C. have they D. haven't they

  答案及解析:

  1、"have/has gone to + 地点"表示"某人去了某地(还未回来)",指主语所指的人不在这儿。"have/has been in + 地点"表示"在某地呆了多长时间",常与表示时间的状语连用。"have/has been to +地点"表示"曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。"故16的正确答案为A。

  2、A

  3、D